NEWTON LAWS OF MOTION

Tension

2 Topics
Quizzes on Newton Laws of Motion

5 Quizzes
FRICTION

Friction

2 Topics
Quizzes on Friction

5 Quizzes
VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

CENTRAL FORCES

Equivalent One Body Problem

3 Topics
Types of Central Force Motion

4 Topics
Problems on Central Forces

4 Topics
Gravitational Field

4 Topics
Gravitational Potential

3 Topics
Gravitational Potential Energy

5 Topics
Quizzes on Central Forces

5 Quizzes
UNIFORMLY ROTATING FRAME- CENTRIFUGAL AND CORIOLIS FORCES

Circular Motion

5 Topics
Coriolis Force

1 Topic
Quizzes on Circular Motion

5 Quizzes
CONSERVATION LAWS

Quizzes on Work, Power and Energy

5 Quizzes
CENTRE OF MASS AND VRIABLE MASS SYSTEMS

Centre of Mass

5 Topics
Quizzes on Centre of Mass

5 Quizzes
RIGID BODY DYNAMICS

Rotation about Fixed Axis

4 Topics
Translation + Rotation

6 Topics
Angular Momentum

4 Topics
Moment of Inertia Tensor

3 Topics
Quizzes on Rigid Body Dynamics

5 Quizzes
FLUID DYNAMICS

Fluid Statics

6 Topics
Fluid Dynamics

4 Topics
Euler Equations and Its Applications

4 Topics
Quizzes on Fluid Dynamics

5 Quizzes
COULOMB LAW AND ELECTRIC FIELD

Electric Field

3 Topics
Quizzes for Electric Field and Potential

4 Quizzes
GAUSS LAW OF ELECTROSTATICS AND APPLICATIONS

Gauss Law of Electrostatics

7 Topics
Quizzes on Gauss law of Electrostatics

2 Quizzes
Capacitance

3 Topics
POLARIZATION OF DIELECTRICS

Polarization of Dielectrics

3 Topics
Problems on Field Calculation

2 Topics
Boundary Condition of D and E

3 Topics
Quizzes on Polarization of Dielectrics

2 Quizzes
WORK AND ENERGY IN ELECTROSTATICS

Electrostatic Energy

4 Topics
Problems on Electrostatic Energy

3 Topics
Problems on Work and Energy

5 Topics
Electrostatic Energy in Dielectrics

2 Topics
Capacitors

3 Topics
Quizzes on capacitance

5 Quizzes
BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS

Boundary Value Problems

3 Topics
Quizzes on Electrostatics

6 Quizzes
CURRENT ELECTRICITY

Electric Current and Resistance

3 Topics
Quizzes on Current Electricity

8 Quizzes
MAGNETOSTATICS

Quizzes on Magnetostatics

7 Quizzes
FARADAY LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Problems on Faraday Law

5 Topics
Quizzes on Faraday law

7 Quizzes
MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Ferromagnetism

1 Topic
DC CIRCUITS

LR circuit

2 Topics
LCR Circuit

1 Topic
AC CIRCUITS

AC Circuit

6 Topics
Quizzes on Alternating Current

5 Quizzes
MAXWELL EQUATIONS and poynting vector

Poynting Vector

3 Topics
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

REFLECTION AND REFRACTION OF EM WAVES AT THE INTERFACE OF TWO DIELECTRICS

Kinematic Properties

3 Topics
Fresnel Formula

4 Topics
Section 3: MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS

MULTIPLE INTEGRAL

Change of Order

7 Topics
VECTOR CALCULUS

Divergence and Curl

4 Topics
Line Integral

4 Topics
Greens Theorem

6 Topics
Surface Integral

6 Topics
Gauss Divergence Theorem

8 Topics
Stokes Theorem

5 Topics
Conservative Vector Field

3 Topics
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Orthogonal Trajectory

2 Topics
MATRICES

Introduction to Matrices

7 Topics
Linear Equations

6 Topics
Determinant

7 Topics
Revision of Matrices

6 Topics
Similar Matrices

1 Topic
Monotonicity

5 Topics
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

Critical Points

3 Topics
Maxima and Minima

3 Topics
Lagrange Mean Value Theorem

3 Topics
Function of Two Variables

7 Topics
FOURIER SERIES

Fourier Series

1 Topic
PARTICLE NATURE OF WAVE

Photoelectric Effect

3 Topics
WAVE NATURE OF PARTICLE

Wave Nature of Particle

3 Topics
H ATOM

H atom and X-rays

1 Topic
Quizzes on Origin of Quantum Mechanics

5 Quizzes
POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

Postulates of Quantum Mechanics

8 Topics
Problems on Postulates

3 Topics
SCHRONDINGER WAVE EQUATION

Quizzes on Schrodinger Wave Equations

5 Quizzes
NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Problems on Radioactive Decay

2 Topics
Quizzes on Nuclear Physics

5 Quizzes
SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

Problems on Relativity

3 Topics
Quizzes on Special Theory of Relativity

3 Quizzes
SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATION

Quizzes on Simple Harmonic Motion

4 Quizzes
DAMPED AND FORCED OSCILLATION

Forced Oscillation

4 Topics
WAVES

Waves

4 Topics
Quizzes on Waves

5 Quizzes
GEOMETRICAL OPTICS

Fermat Principle

1 Topic
Thin Lens

2 Topics
INTERFERENCE

Young Double Slit Experiment

7 Topics
Thin Films

2 Topics
Quizzes on Interference

4 Quizzes
DIFFRACTION

Single Slit

2 Topics
Double Slit

2 Topics
POLARIZATION OF LIGHT

Problems on Polarization of light

2 Topics
Quizzes on Polarization

3 Quizzes
THERMAL EXPANSION

CALORIMETRY

TRANSMISSION OF HEAT

**Discrepancies observed in** **decay**

(a) Continuous nature of ray spectrum is unexpected since, transition connects two states of definite energy.

(b) Non–conservation of energy : Most electrons were emitted with only about one–third of maximum energy (potential energy).

(c) Non–conservation of angular momentum

spin of is 1/2

Both and are fermions

So, spin of is either zero or 1.

emission

emission

The electron, neutrino and product nucleus share the energy, momentum and angular momentum among got them available from the nuclear transition. The – particle gets maximum-energy when the neutrino is emitted with zero momentum.

(d) **Non conservation of linear momentum :** Electron seldom moves opposite to the nucleus as required for conservation of linear momentum. For example : and seldom moves opposite to each other.

These difficulties were overcome by the introduction of the neutrino hypothesis.

Pauli postulated the existence of a new particle, neutrino in 1930, having following properties.

(a) zero charge – it is denoted by the symbol

(b) zero rest mass or (atmost few eVs)

(c) intrinsic spin = ½

The introduction of this particle corrected the discrepancies.

(a) The half spin of neutrino allow the angular momentum to be conserved in –decay process.

(b) Second property of zero rest mass allows the conservation of energy.

**The decay energy is shared between **** particle and antinutrino**

(c) This sharing of energy is not in fixed proportion. So, curve depicting particle is continuous. It show the way energy is shared.

**Properties of antinutrino**

(a) zero charge

(b) zero rest mass

(c) intrinsic spin=½

Difference lies in helicity is left handed particle with H = –1 and is right handed particle with H = +1

**Helicity**

Helicity of elementary particle can be defined as

where is the momentum and is the spin of particle

H = –1 for neutrino

H = +1 for anti-neutrino

If H = 0, system has definite parity

If , parity is violated.

**Properties of Helicity**

(a) It has a fixed value for neutrino and antineutrino

(b) Eigenvalues of helicity operation is

(c) Its eigen values can be used to discriminate between two linearly independent eigen vectors of energy and momentum.

The fixed value of helicity for neutrino and antineutrino leads to implication that they move with the velocity of light c. Otherwise v will have opposite, helicity in the frame of reference moving faster or slower compared to velocity of v. So, it is not possible to overtake v or by a faster frame and so, these particles moves with velocity of light c.

**Violation of parity in** **-decay**

In 1957, Lee and yang questioned the conservation of parity in -decay. Let us consider mirror image of + decay. Let the neutrino travel towards a mirror with momentum

Its spin is oppositely directed to . The mirror image of this neutrino is different because the direction of and are same in mirror image so, it is like antineutrino.

So, the mirror image of the decay is not a possible process. This termed as violation of parity by nutrino

This asymmetry implies that interactions in which v and participate the weak interactions need not violate parity and parity conservation, is found to hold true only in strong & electromagnetic interactions.

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