Radioactive Decay

Of more than 3000 known nuclides only 266 are stable. Many unstable nuclei can decay spontaneously to a nucleus of lower mass but different combinations of nucleons. This process of spontaneous emissionof radiation is called Radioactivity. Here, the term radiation refers to particles as well as electromagnetic radiation. Three types of radiations are emitted by …

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Q Value

Consider the nuclear reaction Where = kinetic energy of the projectile x = rest energy of the projectile x And similarly and are kinetic energy and restmass energy of product y and and are kinetic energy and restmass energy of product y The target nucleus is assumed to be at rest The quantity Q represents …

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Gamma Decay

When the nucleus in the excited state passes to the ground state or to the lower excited state from higher excited state, it emits a high energy photon. This photon emitted from a nucleus in an excited state is known as rays. The emission must satisfy following conservation laws (a) Conservation of charge(b) Conservation of …

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Beta Decay

Discrepancies observed in decay(a) Continuous nature of ray spectrum is unexpected since, transition connects two states of definite energy.(b) Non–conservation of energy : Most electrons were emitted with only about one–third of maximum energy (potential energy).(c) Non–conservation of angular momentum spin of is 1/2 Both and are fermions So, spin of is either zero or …

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Basic Nuclear Properties

(a) Charge : Charge of the nucleus = +ZeWhere e is the charge on the electron = coulomb(b) Mass : Approximately equal to Where & are mass of neutron & proton (c) Size : The volume is proportional to total number of nucleons in it So, radius of nuclear where Nuclear surface is defined as …

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